【恩典之路】唯有上主是我全所有─趙儀文神父

 

趙儀文神父    Yves Camus, S.J.

 

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入會70 年

1932-01-11 出生於法國默東 (Meudon)

1949-10-01 在法國烏爾克河畔拉克魯瓦 (La Croix-sur-Ourq) 進入耶穌會

1963-09-07 在法國里昂 - 富維耶山(Lyon-Fourvière) 領受司鐸聖職

1967-07-02 法國尚提伊 (Chantilly) 矢發末願

目前在澳門從事文化研究工作

 

 

唯有上主是我全所有

《號角報》授權轉載

 

為天主服務的聖召,其實很早就在趙神父的生命中出現,特別在戰後的幾年歲月裡,神父領悟到,耶穌會是他真正該走的道路。1949 10 1 日,中華人民共和國成立那天,二次大戰倖存者—趙儀文神父進入了耶穌會,而中國以及中國的傳統信仰,最終成為他奉獻半個多世紀以來,致力探討的一個廣泛而關鍵的主題。

如果回到 70 年前,會預想到今天的慶典嗎 ? 可曾想像過自己會把一生都奉獻給耶穌會?

坦白來說,我從未在意過任何的紀念日,特別是今日的慶典,更是在我的預料之外,在我的家庭裡,甚至連生日都不會過,反倒是會慶祝瞻禮日。由於我叫 Yves,我的主保日是 1940 5 19 日,也是我永遠忘不了的一天,那是在二次世界大戰德軍入侵之初,大夥兒正在逃難的日子,藉由這個節日,就會想起是什麼時候開始逃難的。而就聖召來說,是從我中學畢業進入北法亞眠 (Amiens) 的耶穌會學院開始;在二次大戰時期,我在亞眠的一個耶穌會舊機構讀書,我仍然清楚地記得,1940 年要升小學七年級那時,教室在戰爭時被摧毀了,於是就得不斷地到不同的地方上課,即使至 1945 年, 二次大戰接近結束解放時,情況也非立即有改善;後來於 1949 年讀完中學,在中國當時的局勢下,出於一種好奇—就於 1949 10 1 日,進入耶穌會。

是什麼時候讓你決定成為一位耶穌會士?

聖召很早就出現在我的生命裡,但決定成為一位耶穌會士,是在中學畢業後,進行分辨才做的決定。讀哲學的最後一年裡,我遇見了一位影響我至深的人,我們進行了長時間的交談,而在他年老時,也去拜訪他幾次;但不僅僅是這一位特別的人物,許多我小學時期的老師們,他們對待學生的方式也大大的影響了我,他們真的都是非常傑出的教育家,無庸置疑。

在二戰時期逃難的親身經歷,如何影響使你成為耶穌會士?

戰爭帶來的痛苦並不是決定性的影響。相反地,我的導師,在讀書時期最後一年裡,給予我很大的影響,因為他非常熱衷於反思宗教傳統如何在世界上成為影響力,而我為此被吸引,在我看來,基督教信仰在早期西方世界的文化歷史上,就已廣為人知。我曾想過,如果這宗教的起源在世界的其他地方,會有什麼不一樣的事情發生?但事實上,就是出現在東西文化交會點—西方所謂的近東。它是中東的早期文明、希臘和羅馬文明、以及後來具有影響力的伊斯蘭文明,更是羅馬帝國透過波斯與中國接觸的地方,也就是中亞。這都是眾所皆知的,然而以其他的方式發展,人類思想的核心又會有什麼不同的改變?

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佛教與基督教間確實有些關聯,但如上述所提到的,若耶穌出現在中國、尼泊爾,甚至是其他地方,會有什麼不同嗎?

這個問題是無法做假設的,但卻值得去探討,因為其必須進行考驗,也必須有所體驗,更要能以適當的方式存在。也就是近二十年由梵蒂岡第二屆大公會議 (the Second Vatican Council) 提出,在不同宗教傳統之間的對話,不僅是要避免更要消除不同國家或不同文明之間所產生的衝突;而在西方國家中,也有不少傳統基督的神學家正在促進這種,相遇和相互理解,以及不同宗教傳統代表之間的對話,旨在幫助建立世界和平。有一句名言認為:「世界上沒有和平,除非不同宗教之間存在著和平。」這就是為什麼各個宗教領袖都有共同責任, 使自己理解並接受從另一種宗教傳統中學習,確實,並非所有宗教的傳統都是一樣的,但看起來卻又都是一樣的。人類生命的最終價值是什麼?有限嗎?亦或者是無限的?

當你成為神父時,你內心有強烈的渴望到日本去服務。然而,卻從來沒去過那裡……

花了十四年的時間申請到日本服務,但現在有沒有去日本已經不重要了。由於我的目的是想學習佛教信仰文化,我向三位曾在遠東傳教的耶穌會士諮詢,兩位在中國、一位在泰國, 他們都參與了這種跨文化的工作,其中兩位是《大漢法辭典》的發起人,此本辭典共七卷,我也為此貢獻了十三年。他們建議我不要去泰國,或者斯里蘭卡等的所謂「老派佛教」的小乘佛教國家, 反倒希望我來台灣,因為這裡對更有影響力的大乘佛教較為開放,因此我來到了台灣。

你對佛教傳統與基督教傳統間的連結,有著深刻的理解,雖然是非常不同的傳統, 但卻有許多共同點……

佛教傳統可能會被某些人完全地誤解,但除了這一點:在佛教覺醒的經驗中,人們會意識到沒有個人認同,我的意思是,佛教的覺醒是內在空虛的花朵。為我來說,如果我們能保持生命在這種內在虛空的狀態,就可以更接近耶穌基督,如保祿掏空自己一般,即在聖保祿宗徒致斐理伯人書中所強調的。我們可以在這方面更加地謹慎,因為在基督徒的靈性中,就是要放下自己去服務別人,捨去那些會使人跌倒的部分,以利更加地成為他人的幫助,也就能更接近天主。因此,萬物終將歸為無有,唯有上主是我全所有。

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Vacuity is the ultimate goal so that God be all in all

Marco Carvalho

 

The vocation to become of service to God was felt very early in his life, but it was only in the post-War years that Yves Camus realized that the Society of Jesus was the right path for him. A Second World War survivor, Father Camus joined the Jesuits on the 1st of October 1949, the very same day the People’s Republic of China was founded. And China – and the Chinese religious traditions ultimately became a widespread, defining subject to which he devoted more than half a century.

If we go back seventy years, to 1949, was it something that you could foretell? Did you imagine that you would be giving all your life to the Society of Jesus and celebrating this Jubilee?

Frankly speaking, I was never worried or attracted to celebrate any anniversary, particularly this anniversary, which I didn’t foresee. I am not attracted to this ceremony as such and even birthday ceremonies, we didn’t usually celebrate them in my family. We celebrated more the feast days than birthdays. Since I am called Yves, I remember for instance, as a small part  of the story, the day we had to flee at the beginning of the Second World War the invasion of the German armies. And I remember it because it was  on the day of my feast day: 19th May 1940. It is through this feast day that I remember when we started to flee. As far as my vocation started, it was at the end of my secondary education, after graduating from the Jesuit College in which I was educated in Amiens, in the northern part of France. I studied in a very old Jesuit institution in the city of Amiens. I studied there during the Second World War. I still remember quite well that in 1940 I had to enter the primary seventh grade in Amiens in a building that was destroyed during the War. Later on, we moved to different places in Amiens, particularly as the liberation days at the end of the Second World War, in 1945, drew nearer. This is part of my history as far as education is concerned. Things didn’t improve immediately. I finished my secondary education in 1949. As far as the local situation – the Chinese situation – is concerned,there’s a curiosity: I entered the Seminary on the first of October 1949.

When did you decide that the Jesuits were the best option for you? Or was it a belief that was built step-by-step?

I felt this vocation present in my life very early, but the choice to become a Jesuit was only discerned and decided at the end of my secondary education, perhaps though not a suspected, but accepted influence of some Jesuit that have been very influential in my life, particularly in the latest year of my education, in Philosophy, when I met a man of a great influence in my life. We had long conversations and in his old age I visited him several times. But it was not only this particular person. Some of the teachers, when I was in the lower years of my education, also have been very influential by the way they dealt with us. They were good educators, certainly.

You have lived first hand the horrors of the Second World War. You had to flee, to take refuge. How did that influence your path? How did that influence your choice to become a Jesuit?

The war as such, the suffering or the inconvenience caused by the war, were not a decisive influence. On the contrary: my mentor, on the last year of my education, had a great influence on me by the way that he was also very keen in reflecting about the religious traditions in the world or the religions traditions as such, as they are and how influential these religious traditions have been in the world. I have been attracted to that, insofar that it seemed to me that Christianity i s known in the w o r l d b y t h e way it has been understood earlier in the western part of the world. Very early in my life I was just wondering  if it had been another way. What would have happened if the Incarnation  had happened somewhere else in the world. It could have been also in Central Asia, for instance. It could have been… I do not know in what country, but – as a matter of fact – it was designed to be at the juncture of East and West, what we call now, in a western way of expression, the Near East of the West. It has been a crossroad of a few civilizations: the early civilizations of the Middle East, later the civilizations of Greece and Rome and later the influential civilization of Islam, not to speak about the Roman Empire contact with China through Persia and also the central part of Asia. This is well known by those who have a solid knowledge of world history. Nevertheless, the question remains: what would have developed in the hearts and minds of the people if it had been other way?

As soon as you became a priest you felt a strong urge to serve in Japan

But you never went there, did you?

I asked for 14 years to be sent to Japan, but it was not meant to be. After all those years, it was not a matter of going to Japan anymore. Since my aim was to study the Buddhist tradition, I consulted three Jesuits who had been missionaries in the Far East: two of them in China and one in Thailand. All of them were involved in that sort of intercultural work. Two of them had been the initiators of the Great Chinese-French Dictionary in seven volumes, to which I’ve contributed also for 13 years. These three people advised me not to go to Thailand, for instance, neither to Sri Lanka, because these countries represented the so-called “old school of Buddhism,” the small vehicle. They advised me instead to go to Taiwan, because it was open to the more influential “great vehicle” of Buddhist tradition. So, I went to Taiwan.

You have, nevertheless, built a solid understanding of Buddhism and of the points of contact between the Buddhist and the Christian tradition. We are talking about two very different traditions, but with a lot of aspects in common…

The Buddhist tradition might be, by certain persons, fully misunderstood, except in one point. In the Buddhist awakening experience

there is a realization that there is no personal identification. What I mean to say is that Buddhist awakening is the flower of vacuity, of internal vacuity. It seems to me that if we could maintain life in this state of internal, decentered vacuity we could be closer to the mystery of Jesus Christ incarnation, who emptied himself as Paul, Saint Paul in his writing has so beautifully stressed, particularly in the Letters to the Philippians. It is possible for us to be prudent in these terms, because in Christian spiritually we are invited to deny ourselves to the service of the others. That is to dig out from ourselves what is to be let down, so that we can be of greater help to others, we get one step closer to the mystery of Christ. Vacuity is the ultimate goal so that God be all in all.

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